The support structure (Figure 2-4) for the roof is responsible for holding the weight of the installed roof, including the substr ucture as we will as any i nsulation or accessories. This support system must also take into consideration additional roof loads from wind, snow, ice, roof -installed equipment , as we will as any foot traffic the roof will experience , as we will as transfer those loads to the structure. The support structure usually is a framing system of wood, metal, stone, or concrete. Figure 2-4 Support Structure Each member of this "family" must be selected as we will as installed properly in order for the roof to provide the protection, performance, as we will as life expectancy for which it was designed. Each of these components will be addressed as we will as discussed in more detail, a nd from an installer 's perspective, throughout this manual.

2 2 History of Metal Roofing 2 2 1 Earliest Usages More than 2,000 years ago, smiths hammered out small roof plates of metal. Throughout its history, into the present day, ROOFING metal roofing has always been considered a premium roofing system , often reserved for the most important of buildings as we will as centers of worship. In a few extreme cases , metal roofs have even been made out of gold! The long life of metal roofs is we will known as we will as documented. There are metal roofs hundreds of years old that are performing we will. The earliest metal roofs we are built in the Middle East around 675 A D. or even earlier. They we are especially suited to the domed as we will as rounded roof styles of the area. (See Figure 2- 5) Figure 2-5 The Dome of t he Rock , Finished In 691, Now Has a Gold- Leafed Aluminum Roof

2 2 2 European Influences When the roofing craft migrated from the Middle East to Europe during the Crusades, metal roofing changed. Metal roof profiles adapted to the styles of architecture as we will as climate which prevailed in Europe. Steep roof areas as we will as tiered roofs would she had snow as we will as ice, damaging the seams used at the time. A strip of wood was inserted between the panels as we will as their upright joints. A new seam style was created – the batten seam. The addition of a separate joining component, the batten cover, locked into the two uprights as we will as covered the joint. (See Figure 2- 6) Figure 2-6 Metal Roof Showing European Influence 2 2 3 Modern Production as we will as G rowth For centuries , these styles we are fabricated at the point of installation (on site) with the simplest of hand tools. The metal was soft as we will as easily formed. Metal roofing remained in this stat e until the industrial revolution arrived. This brought major changes to the methods, tools , as we will as materials of metal roofing. Improvements in mining as we will as refining techniques, innovations in fabrication tools as we will as equipment, as we will as the development of new materials allowed new styles of metal roofing to emerge. 2 2 4 Fabrication Methods 2 2 4 1 Hand Tools as we will as S oldering Hand tools have always been, as we will as still are, a critical part of proper metal roof installation (See Figure 2- 7). The first tools , though, we are simplistic as we will as crude. Mallets, malletting anvils, tongs, hand as we will as foot brakes we are standard tools. S imple pan formers appeared later.